The evolution and emergence of RNA viruses

by Edward C. Holmes

Publisher: Oxford University Press in Oxford, New York

Written in English
Cover of: The evolution and emergence of RNA viruses | Edward C. Holmes
Published: Pages: 254 Downloads: 60
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Subjects:

  • RNA viruses,
  • Viruses -- Evolution,
  • Viral genetics,
  • Virus diseases

Edition Notes

Includes bibliographical references and index.

StatementEdward C. Holmes.
SeriesOxford series in ecology and evolution, Oxford series in ecology and evolution
Classifications
LC ClassificationsQR395 .H65 2009
The Physical Object
Paginationxii, 254 p. :
Number of Pages254
ID Numbers
Open LibraryOL23972788M
ISBN 100199211124, 0199211132
ISBN 109780199211128, 9780199211135
LC Control Number2009284349

  A comprehensive review of how analysis of genome sequences provided insights into the origins, evolution and spread of Ebola virus during the – epidemic in West by: Professor Eddie Holmes is known for his work on the evolution and emergence of infectious diseases, particularly the mechanisms by which RNA viruses jump species boundaries to emerge in humans and other animals. He currently holds an ARC Australian Laureate Fellowship. He has studied the emergence and spread of such pa. An RNA virus is a virus that has RNA (ribonucleic acid) as its genetic material. This nucleic acid is usually single-stranded RNA but may be double-stranded RNA (dsRNA). Notable human diseases caused by RNA viruses include the common cold, influenza, SARS, COVID, hepatitis C, hepatitis E, West Nile fever, Ebola virus disease, rabies, polio and measles. RNA viruses experience rates of mutation that are some six orders of magnitude higher than those seen in eukaryotes, which undoubtedly gives them great adaptability. Paradoxically, these mutation rates also constrain virus evolution by putting a cap on genome size through the imposition of an ‘error-threshold’. This chapter starts with an overview of the major constraints and trade-offs in Author: Edward C. Holmes.

  Viruses consist of a protective proteinaceous shell that packages a DNA or RNA genome. The critical step in the evolution of primitive viruses was presumably the emergence of protein cages that could load, protect, and transfer their own genetic information. Here, we show that a nonviral protein cage formed by Aquifex aeolicus lumazine synthase and its encoding mRNA can be Cited by: 8. Start studying Chapter 19 Biology Viruses. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. Chapter 7: Case Studies in RNA virus evolution and emergence study guide by maxasu includes 17 questions covering vocabulary, terms and more. Quizlet flashcards, activities and games help you improve your grades. There are currently recognized species of RNA virus that can infect humans, and on average, 2 new species are added every year. RNA viruses are routinely exchanged between humans and other hosts (particularly other mammals and sometimes birds) over both epidemiological and evolutionary time: 89% of human-infective species are considered zoonotic and many of the remainder have zoonotic by:

The evolution and emergence of RNA viruses by Edward C. Holmes Download PDF EPUB FB2

The Evolution and Emergence of RNA Viruses provides a comprehensive overview of RNA virus evolution. This is the first book to link mechanisms of viral evolution to epidemiological outcomes, incorporating case studies in RNA virus emergence and evolution using topical examples such as influenza, HIV, dengue fever, and by: Keywords: RNA viruses, evolution, emergence, gravity model, spatial subdivision model, book review.

Copyright notice. This impressive monograph by Edward Holmes opens with a quotation from La Peste,by Albert Camus: “Everyone knows that pestilences have a way of recurring in the world; yet somehow we find it hard to believe in ones that crash down on our heads from a blue sky.”.Cited by: 7.

RNA viruses provide unique insights into the patterns and processes of evolutionary change in real time. The study of viral evolution is especially topical given the growing awareness that emerging and re-emerging diseases (most of which are caused by RNA viruses) represent a.

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comment. Reviews There are no reviews yet. The Evolution and Emergence of RNA Viruses provides a comprehensive overview of RNA virus evolution.

This is the first book to link mechanisms of viral evolution to epidemiological outcomes, incorporating case studies in RNA virus emergence and evolution using topical examples such as influenza, HIV, dengue fever, and : Edward C.

Holmes. The Evolution and Emergence of RNA Viruses may be viewed as a concise guide and also a good starting point for people with some background in evolutionary biology and who are interested in viruses. In general, the book deals with the “cause and consequence of evolutionary change in RNA viruses” and links the mechanisms of viral evolution within their hosts to the Author: Rafael Sanjuán, Katie Bradwell.

While RNA viruses seem to have a~32 kb size constraint [6], the genomes of DNA viruses can be uncommonly large, with the giant Mimiviruses genomes being in. Viroids are minimal RNA replicons composed by a single-stranded and highly structured circular small RNA able to infect plants and induce diseases.

Viroids lack protein-coding capacity and are therefore parasites of their host transcription machinery. The small size, circularity, high G+C content, and presence of hammerhead ribozymes in some viroids, suggest their evolutionary origin in the RNA. The Evolution and Emergence of RNA Viruses provides a comprehensive overview of RNA virus evolution.

This is the first book to link mechanisms of viral evolution to epidemiological outcomes, incorporating case studies in RNA virus emergence and evolution using topical examples such as influenza, HIV, dengue fever, and rabies.4/5(1). Request PDF | On Sep 1,Edward C. Holmes and others published The Evolution and Emergence of RNA Viruses.

| Find, read and cite all the research you need on ResearchGate. This apt quotation might lead the reader to believe that the evolution and emergence of RNA viruses in causing new diseases would be discussed, but in fact the book, as its title suggests, concentrates on how RNA viruses evolve and emerge at the molecular level, not how they cause disease.

BOOKS AND MEDIA The Evolution and Emergence of RNA Viruses By Edward C. Holmes Oxford University Press: New York, NY, USA, ISBN (Paperback) Pages: ; Price: US $ This impressive monograph by Edward Holmes opens with a quota-tion from La Peste, by Albert Camus: “Everyone knows that pestilences have.

The Evolution and Emergence of RNA Viruses provides a comprehensive overview of RNA virus evolution, with a particular focus on genomic and phylogenetic approaches. This is the first book to link mechanisms of viral evolution with disease dynamics, using high-profile examples in emergence and evolution such as influenza, HIV, dengue fever, and.

The Evolution and Emergence of RNA Viruses provides a comprehensive overview of RNA virus evolution, with a particular focus on genomic and phylogenetic approaches.

This is the first book to link mechanisms of viral evolution with disease dynamics, using high-profile examples in emergence and evolution such as influenza, HIV, dengue fever, and rabies/5(11). Get this from a library.

The evolution and emergence of RNA viruses. [Edward C Holmes] -- RNA viruses provide unique insights into the patterns and processes of evolutionary change in real time.

The study of viral evolution is especially topical given the growing awareness that emerging. He discuses the origins and mechanisms of RNA viruses, virus quasispecies, comparative genomics and the macroevolution of viruses, the molecular epidemiology, phylogeography, and emergence of viruses, and applications of these concepts in case studies of viruses like influenza and HIV.

([c] Book News, Inc., Portland, OR). The Evolution and Emergence of RNA Viruses (Oxford Series in Ecology and Evolution) eBook: Holmes, Edward C.: : Kindle Store/5(2).

This apt quotation might lead the reader to believe that the evolution and emergence of RNA viruses in causing new diseases would be discussed, but in fact the book, as its title suggests, concentrates on how RNA viruses evolve and emerge at the.

The origin and evolution of DNA replication mechanisms thus occurred at a critical period of life evolution that encompasses the late RNA world and the emergence of the Last Universal Cellular Ancestor (LUCA) to the present three domains of life (Eukarya, Bacteria and Archaea.).

It is an exciting time to learn through comparative genomics Cited by: Evolution and Adaptation to the Human Host. While DNA viruses are believed to have been evolving and diversifying for millions of years, most RNA viruses are likely to have a much more recent evolution and “human-adaptation” for only thousands of years.

Owing to their error-prone polymerase/reverse-transcriptase (approx. 10 −4 /site/replication cycle) that seems to operate at optimal Author: Shashi S. Sudhan, Preeti Sharma. Our understanding of the diversity and evolution of vertebrate RNA viruses is largely limited to those found in mammalian and avian hosts and Cited by: Virus - Virus - Evolution of new virus strains: Viruses that infect animals can jump from one species to another, causing a new, usually severe disease in the new host.

For example, in a virus in the Coronaviridae family jumped from an animal reservoir, believed to be horseshoe bats, to humans, causing a highly pathogenic disease in humans called severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS).

Viruses with RNA genomes dominate the eukaryotic virome, reaching enormous diversity in animals and plants. The recent advances of metaviromics prompted us to perform a detailed phylogenomic reconstruction of the evolution of the dramatically expanded global RNA virome.

The only universal gene among RNA viruses is the gene encoding the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp).Cited by: This book is a tour de force introduction to the field of emerging RNA viruses by one of the world's leading experts in virus evolution.

The book progresses rapidly from concise chapters on RNA virus biology, origins and microevolution to detailed discussions of RNA virus macroevolution, (contentious) quasi-species concepts, phylogeography and patterns of RNA virus emergence.

This notion is based on the history of viruses in medicine, as explained in a book entitled “Viruses: More Friends Than Foes” (Moelling, ). The scenario described here focuses on viruses as drivers of evolution. The early RNA world gained interest 20–30 years ago as Cited by: 4.

RNA viruses are generally highly mutable and adaptable. These characteristics allow them to rapidly change structure and biological phenotype via natural selection under a changing environment, sometimes leading to persistent infection in a host or to outbreaks of emerging/re-emerging infectious diseases in populations.

In this work, we investigate the evolutionary events that have led to the emergence of the nCoV virus. In particular, we identify amino acid changes differentiating the nCoV genome from the next most closely related betacoronavirus strain, RaTG13, and furthermore, we find evidence of convergent evolution with human SARS-CoV.

New epidemics such as AIDS and "mad cow" disease have dramatized the need to explore the factors underlying rapid viral evolution and emerging viruses. This comprehensive volume is the first to describe this multifaceted new field. It places viral evolution and emergence in a historical context, describes the interaction of viruses with hosts, and details the advances in molecular biology and.

The Evolution and Emergence of RNA Viruses. (PMCID:PMC) Abstract Citations; Related Articles; Data; BioEntities; External Links ' ' Mahy BWJ Emerging Infectious Diseases [01 May16(5)] Type: book Type: book-review, Book Review.

Abstract. No. RNA viruses are the main agents of emerging and re-emerging diseases. It is therefore important to reveal the evolutionary processes that underpin their ability to jump species boundaries and establish themselves in new hosts.

Here, I discuss how comparative genomics can contribute to this endeavor. Arguably the most important evolutionary process in RNA virus evolution, abundant Cited by:.

The emergence and reemergence of rapidly evolving RNA viruses—particularly those responsible for respiratory diseases, such as influenza viruses and coronaviruses—pose a significant threat to global health, including the potential of major pandemics.

Importantly, recent advances in high-throughput genome sequencing enable researchers to reveal the genomic diversity of these viral pathogens Cited by: 9.Holmes EC. The evolution and emergence of RNA viruses. Oxford University Press; 2. Yang Z, Rannala B. Molecular phylogenetics: principles and practice.

Nat Rev Genet. Nature Publishing Group; ; – pmid View Article PubMed/NCBI Google Scholar by: 4.The ongoing pandemic of a new human coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, has generated enormous global concern. We and others in China were involved in the initial genome sequencing of the virus.

Herein, we describe what genomic data reveal about the emergence SARS-CoV-2 and discuss the gaps in our understanding of its origins.